How closely are they related

The first test was processed by FTDNA with their relative finder. This test is like the one that’s offered by and called there everything test. This test is an autosomal test. It looks at samples of your DNA from all chromosomes except for the Y chromosome.

Our four candidates Alton Earl Jim and Harry are fourth cousins twice removed. The relationship between Harry and Jim are second cousin once removed but they also have fourth cousin removed relationships on two other lines. We know these relationships through standard genealogical research which is well-documented.

Using the GEDmatch 3D Chromosome Browser we get a nice chart showing the relationship between our four candidates. Earl and James share no DNA the rest of the relationships include one segment of the DNA. Harry and Jim share five segments because of their closer relationship.

Segments in common:

Kit Name T579239 T055537 T829743 T918718 Tot. Segments Largest cM
T579239 Earl Rader 0 2 2 4 31.8
T055537 James Lee Rader 0 5 1 6 22.1
T829743 Harry Rader 2 5 1 8 22.1
T918718 Alton Rader 2 1 1 4 31.8

Autosomal DNA shared between pairs of relatives at the fourth cousin level normally share 13 cM but the fourth cousins once removed would only share 6 cM. So in our circumstance with the twice removed we would expect 3 cM.

The expected level between Harry and Jim are that of second cousins once removed which on average 106 centiMorgans The expected level between Harry and Jim are that of second cousins once removed which on average 106 centiMorgans. Using this table you can see the share five segments.


Total Shared cM (Chr 1-22):

Kit Name T579239 T055537 T829743 T918718
T579239 Earl Rader None 19.7 48.3
T055537 James Lee Rader None 78.3 5.1
T829743 Harry Rader 19.7 78.3 11.4
T918718 Alton Rader 48.3 5.1 11.4

Summary by Chromosome:

Chr Tot. Matching Segments
for all individuals.
B36 Graphic Posn Range Largest
From To
1 0 72017 247185615 None
2 0 8674 242697433 None
3 1 36495 199322659 20.2
4 1 49009 191200760 31.8
5 0 78452 180630744 None
6 0 100815 170761395 None
7 0 139250 158812247 None
8 2 154984 146264218 11.4
9 2 36587 140208462 16.5
10 0 84172 135358259 None
11 0 188510 134445626 None
12 0 61880 132288869 None
13 0 17956717 114121631 None
14 2 18325726 106358708 21.6
15 1 18294933 100278685 9.2
16 0 28165 88690776 None
17 1 8547 78653169 5.1
18 0 3034 76116152 None
19 0 211912 63788972 None
20 0 9098 62382907 None
21 0 9849404 46924583 None
22 1 14494244 49558258 22.1
23 0 2321 154889941 None

Segment Details:

Kit1 Kit2 Chr Build 36 cM
Kit Nbr. Name Kit Nbr. Name From To
T055537 James Lee Rader T829743 Harry Rader 3 10215159 25460760 20.2
T579239 Earl Rader T918718 Alton Rader 4 121202707 157186835 31.8
T055537 James Lee Rader T829743 Harry Rader 8 140535029 143182478 5.2
T829743 Harry Rader T918718 Alton Rader 8 135910061 141152797 11.4
T579239 Earl Rader T918718 Alton Rader 9 129350655 136524980 16.5
T579239 Earl Rader T829743 Harry Rader 9 136263069 140147760 13.6
T055537 James Lee Rader T829743 Harry Rader 14 88480306 97899028 21.6
T579239 Earl Rader T829743 Harry Rader 14 30421536 32553908 6.1
T055537 James Lee Rader T829743 Harry Rader 15 88047217 91532308 9.2
T055537 James Lee Rader T918718 Alton Rader 17 27056533 29380126 5.1
T055537 James Lee Rader T829743 Harry Rader 22 43130670 49528625 22.1

These results are based on the 5.0 cM / 500 SNP threshold that you specified on the preceeding page. Because of that,
these results may be somewhat different than those obtained in the one-to-one and one-to-many utilities, which
use the site default values. Default values vary depending on the testing company that provided the kit.

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cM color coding < 3 cM 3 – 5 cM 5 – 10 cM 10 – 20 cM 20 – 50 cM 50 – 100 cM Over 100 cM

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Software Version: Apr 12 2016 20:55:43

Big-Y results, do I understand this correctly?

These are the people involved in the 2016 Big-Y study

What can NGS testing prove?
I have a group of four men all who descended from the same person who was born in 1732. I have the big Y results for all four men. These four men match on Y-111 stir testing at least 110 out of 111 STRs.

My Genealogy research shows me that I am related to the 3 men who I am testing as follows:
1. Earl is a 4th cousin twice removed on my Rader line
2. Alton is a 4th cousin twice removed on my Rader line
3. Harry is a 2nd cousin once removed on my Rader line
And a 4th cousin twice removed on my Bauer line
And a 4th cousin twice removed on my Andes line
The genealogy research on these four men is quite thorough. It is been researched by multiple researchers who publish results over the last 50 years. Has been confirmed by extensive land of probate research.
The table below entitled “compare novel variants all 4 28Jan17” displays a lot of details obtained from that study.
The left column entitled Yseq with values highlighted in yellow are the locations which I had tested with Sanger test methods to verify that the results from the big Y were accurate.
The second column is the name that these particular locations are known by, at some companies.
The next section which is highlighted in green are the results from my big Y tests. The numbers are the physical location being tested.
The section which is not highlighted his Harry’s test results followed by the blue highlighted section with Earl’s test results and the final section in the right hand side is Alton’s results
I aligned them so that the places where there are blank spaces are locations where we do not match! You will see that we do not match an equal amount or in the same places. Jim has 23 unique variants, Harry has 16 variants, Earl has 28, and Alton 22.

I assume that any snip that they all have would be a snip the original man had. What I don’t know is when three out of four of them have a snip how could that happen? Harry’s test is lacking many matches that the other three have. If the original man Casper had them and Jim who is downline from harry has them then Harry must also have them!

One guess is that there is a mistake in testing and test missed that particular snip. Another guess would be that when his father created his spirm he made an error at that same location which caused the SNP to flip back to the original value. The problem with that is that 7 positions do not flip in 120 years (the time between Henry 1829 and Jim 1942)